ENGLISH - SPANISH GLOSSARY OF TRANSLATION INDUSTRY TERMS
Creation Date: 12/Aug/2013
Language other than the translator’s or interpreter’s main or dominant language; a second or third language in which they are proficient or master with competence or as well as their mother tongue.
Spanish: idioma B
Translating a target text back into its source language. It is a common mistake to believe that you can verify the quality of a translation translating it back into its source language. In fact, the opposite is true; the worse the translation (the more word-for-word it is), the closer the back translation will adhere to the original, as is the case in automatic machine translation. Synonym: Reverse translation
Spanish: retraducción inversa
Documentation relating to the subject matter of the source text for a translation (articles, books, manuals, linguistic discussions, etc.). Translators use this background information to determine terminology, meanings and context, and make linguistic decisions.
Spanish: documentos de apoyo, material de apoyo
A person that can communicate fluently or is highly proficient in two languages. Bilingualism is one of several required abilities of a translator or interpreter. Depending on how a translator learned his “second language” (by immersion from childhood on, by immersion in adulthood or by formal studies in a language program) one can infer the translator’s competence in that language with some approximation.
Segments of text in one language are aligned with corresponding segments in another language. Synonyms: aligned texts, aligned segments, source and target text in two columns, parallel corpora.
Spanish: texto bilingüe en dos columnas, texto bilingüe
Literal or direct translation that involves transferring words from one language to the other, either “as is” (loanwords) or adapting them to the target language grammar rules.
The languages a translator can understand well enough to translate from, as source language, but cannot elaborate or write well enough to translate into.
Spanish: idioma C
A type of literal translation that involves word-to-word translation of fixed expressions which are unnatural in the target language. “Cumplidos de la estación” for “Compliments of the season”.
It refers to “computer-assisted translation” software, a misnomer that causes confusion between software that assists human translation (helps in efficiency, consistency and quality assurance) with machine translation (automatic nonsense).
Spanish: programas de traducción asistida por computador
A formal process for evaluating the compliance with official requirements or a standard. Proof of compliance is a “Certificate”. In some countries people prefer the term "Certification", in others they prefer to use "Accreditation", in others they use both terms indistinctly. See Accreditation, accredited translator.
Spanish: acreditación, certificación
Certified Court Interpreter
A person who has passed an examination to assess competency to interpret during court proceedings in the US. Although the requirements for certification of court interpreters vary according to the jurisdiction, they generally do not demand a high level of competence.
Spanish: intérprete oficial, períto intérprete
A translation that includes a footnote or attached document where the translator declares that the translation is an accurate, complete and correct version of the source text, accepted professional procedures have been followed, and that he is qualified to perform such certification. A simple oath just bears the translator’s signature and details. When done before a Notary Public the identity and signature of the translator are verified, not the accuracy of the translation. As in the US, Chile and other countries there is no restriction as to who can or cannot be a translator, anyone can swear and deliver a Certified Translation. He who swears should have supporting accreditations or certificates from a reputable institution.
Spanish: traducción certificada
There are only 6 countries where translators are accredited or certified officially (China, Australia, Germany, Norway, Sweden and Finland, and partially Canada and Greece). No other country recognizes officially any procedure for accrediting the competencies of a translator or delivers a certificate. In these other countries private organizations (Universities, translators’ associations, government entities, and private businesses) evaluate translators, following a variety of procedures (from serious procedures to fraud), and the translators who have been evaluated, accredited and given a certificate can call themselves “Certified Translator” or “Accredited Translator” although the value of such a certificate depends on the reputation of the accrediting body and its procedures. These certificates are not recognized by governments, but they are considered by potential clients when assessing a service provider.
Spanish: traductor autorizado, traductor acreditado
Translations performed for medical and legal mediation in formal procedures when written translation is required.
Spanish: traductor jurado, traductor médico, perito traductor (legal o médico)
Translation of documents by a great number of uncoordinated individuals, usually of volunteer nature. Usually, but not always (depending on the community involved) the unprofessional nature of the translators and chaotic procedures tend to produce low quality translations. Must not be confused with “community-based translation” which is performed for medical and legal mediation and is not of voluntary nature. See Crowd-sourcing.
Spanish: traducción colectiva
Text written originally in the target language that is aligned with a text that must be translated into that target language and used as suggested translation terminology (i.e. contracts, forms templates, etc.)
Spanish: corpus comparable
Another term for machine translation.
Spanish: traducción automática
Softwares that aid a human translator during the translation process. The software divides the source text into segments and provides space for entering a translation for each segment. The source segment and its translation populate a database of pairs of segments in two languages called “translation memory” or TM. These TMs can be used to speed up translation and to verify terminology used previously. The software also allows the integration of glossaries, dictionaries and external TMs. These softwares can be used for translating texts directly in file types like Word, Excel, PowerPoint and others, retaining formats and design styles in the finished documents. Synonym: computer-assisted translation.
Spanish: traducción asistida por computador
Another name for Computer-aided translation
Spanish: traducción asistida por computador
For translators and interpreters, professional confidentiality is absolute. It goes into effect the moment the translator or interpreter is given access to documents that the client establishes as confidential and remains in effect until his or her death. This confidentiality might be lost if the documents are involved in unlawful activities, a court orders disclosure and their nature can put people’s life or health in danger: this is an ethical stance debated with different views.
The work that an editor does to improve the formatting, style, and accuracy of text (not the contents). Copy editors correct spelling and grammar, and align writings to house style. Synonym: Editing, Reviewing. See Reviewing, Proofreading, Revising, Editing.
Spanish: corrección de textos
Writing persuasive content for direct mail pieces, taglines, jingle lyrics, web pages, online ads, e-mails, television or radio commercial scripts, press releases, white papers, catalogues, billboards, brochures, postcards, sales letters, and other marketing communications media pages.
Spanish: redacción publicitaria
The process of providing interpretation in a court setting or during court-related proceedings, such as depositions.
Spanish: interpretación judicial, interpretación en tribunales
It’s an interpreter that helps communication in court proceedings with foreign language parties. They can also be called for out-of-court procedures. It is recommended that they have good knowledge of comparative law, specific terminology and legal writing style. In the UK, presently (2013), anyone that can speak two languages can be a court interpreter (ALS/Capita).
Spanish: perito intérprete, intérprete perito (Ch)
Translation of documents by a great number of uncoordinated individuals, usually of volunteer nature. The unprofessional nature of the translators and chaotic procedures usually produce low quality translations. The terms community translation or collaborative translation are sometimes used as synonyms. The use of the terms “voluntary translation” or “volunteer translation” as a synonym conflicts with the work delivered to non-profit organisations by professional translators where there is no room for unprofessional translators.
Spanish: abastecimiento con voluntarios, crowd-sourcing
Linguistic references that are supposed to indicate a specific culture, such as names of people, names of streets, specific terms for food, or names for currency units.
Spanish: referentes culturales, elementos culturales